7 Jul

Close Encounters at St Paul’s Church, Covent Garden

18:30 St Paul's Church, Covent Garden

Programme Notes for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik, K. 525


Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music), K. 525, is one of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s most famous and enduring compositions. This serenade, composed in 1787, is beloved for its melodic beauty, graceful structure, and vibrant character. It is a quintessential example of Mozart’s genius in creating music that is both accessible and profoundly sophisticated.

Historical Context

Mozart composed Eine kleine Nachtmusik during a particularly productive period in Vienna. At the time, he was also working on his opera Don Giovanni. This serenade, although seemingly simple, reflects the elegance and refinement of the Classical era. It was written for a chamber ensemble of two violins, viola, cello, and double bass, but it is often performed by string orchestras today.

Structure and Movements

The work is in four movements, each showcasing Mozart’s skill in blending formal clarity with expressive warmth:

1. Allegro: The first movement is in sonata-allegro form and opens with a vigorous, memorable theme that sets an energetic and joyful tone. The exposition presents two contrasting themes, which are developed and then recapitulated, creating a balanced and satisfying musical journey.

2. Romanze: Andante: The second movement is a gentle and lyrical romance. Its serene melody flows gracefully, providing a peaceful contrast to the exuberance of the first movement. The structure is a simple rondo (ABACA), with the main theme recurring between contrasting episodes.

3. Menuetto: Allegretto: This movement is a stately minuet and trio. The minuet section is marked by its robust and rhythmic quality, while the trio offers a lighter, more lyrical interlude. The return to the minuet brings a sense of symmetry and closure.

4. Rondo: Allegro: The final movement is a lively and spirited rondo. Its playful main theme alternates with contrasting episodes, leading to a joyous conclusion. The movement encapsulates the work’s overall charm and vitality.

Musical Highlights

· First Movement (Allegro): Notable for its crisp, rhythmic motifs and dynamic contrasts, this movement epitomizes the Classical sonata form.

· Second Movement (Romanze: Andante): The graceful, flowing melody of the romance provides a moment of calm and introspection.

· Third Movement (Menuetto: Allegretto): The strong, dance-like rhythm of the minuet contrasts beautifully with the more flowing and delicate trio section.

· Fourth Movement (Rondo: Allegro): This movement’s infectious energy and catchy themes make it a favorite among audiences.

Legacy and Impact

Eine kleine Nachtmusik remains one of Mozart’s most performed and recorded works. Its popularity is due to its perfect blend of technical mastery and delightful, accessible melodies. The serenade captures the essence of Mozart’s style: elegant, clear, and infused with an unmistakable joy.

Whether experienced in an intimate chamber setting or a grand concert hall, Eine kleine Nachtmusik continues to enchant listeners and exemplify the timeless beauty of Mozart’s music.

Programme Notes for Edward Elgar’s Serenade for Strings in E minor, Op. 20


Edward Elgar’s Serenade for Strings in E minor, Op. 20, composed in 1892, is a charming and lyrical work that stands as one of his earliest successes. This three-movement piece is notable for its warm, intimate character and exquisite craftsmanship, qualities that have secured its place as a beloved staple of the string repertoire.

Historical Context

Elgar composed the Serenade for Strings during a period when he was still establishing his reputation as a composer. Written in 1892 and first performed privately in 1893, the work did not receive a public performance until 1896. It is believed to have been a reworking of an earlier suite, and its premiere marked an important step in Elgar’s career. The Serenade was dedicated to Edward W. Whinfield, a notable early supporter of Elgar’s music.

Structure and Movements

The Serenade for Strings is composed of three movements, each reflecting Elgar’s lyrical style and his ability to convey deep emotion through simple means:

1. Allegro piacevole: The first movement opens with a light and flowing theme that exudes warmth and charm. The music is marked by its graceful melodies and gentle rhythmic drive, creating an atmosphere of pastoral tranquility.

2. Larghetto: The second movement is the emotional heart of the serenade. Its broad, sweeping lines and lush harmonies evoke a sense of longing and introspection. The movement’s rich, expressive quality showcases Elgar’s gift for melodic invention and his ability to convey profound emotion through music.

3. Allegretto: The final movement returns to the brighter, more playful character of the opening. It features a lively, dance-like theme that brings the serenade to a cheerful and satisfying conclusion. The interplay between the different sections of the string orchestra highlights Elgar’s skill in orchestration.

Musical Highlights

· First Movement (Allegro piacevole): Notable for its lyrical, flowing themes and the gentle interplay between the string sections.

· Second Movement (Larghetto): A highlight of the serenade, this movement’s poignant melodies and rich harmonies create a deeply emotional and contemplative atmosphere.

· Third Movement (Allegretto): The playful and rhythmic final movement provides a delightful contrast to the introspective second movement, ending the work on a light and joyous note.

Legacy and Impact

Elgar’s Serenade for Strings remains one of his most frequently performed works. Its enduring popularity is due to its combination of melodic beauty, emotional depth, and structural clarity. The serenade is often cited as an early example of Elgar’s mature style, foreshadowing the expressive richness and nobility that would characterize his later masterpieces.

The Serenade for Strings holds a special place in the string orchestra repertoire, beloved by performers and audiences alike for its elegance and heartfelt expression. Its success helped to establish Elgar as a significant voice in English music, and it continues to be celebrated as a gem of the late Romantic era.

Programme Notes for Gustav Holst’s St. Paul’s Suite, Op. 29, No. 2


Gustav Holst’s St. Paul’s Suite, Op. 29, No. 2, composed in 1912-1913, is one of his most popular and enduring works for string orchestra. Named after St. Paul’s Girls’ School in London, where Holst taught music for many years, the suite reflects his interest in English folk music and showcases his skill in writing for strings. This four-movement suite is both accessible and richly inventive, capturing the spirit of English folk traditions with a fresh, modern twist.

Historical Context

Holst composed the St. Paul’s Suite for the students of St. Paul’s Girls’ School, where he was the Director of Music from 1905 until his death in 1934. The suite was written for the school’s string orchestra and was first performed there. The piece is a testament to Holst’s dedication to music education and his ability to create sophisticated yet approachable music for young musicians. It was later published in 1922 and has since become a staple of the string orchestra repertoire.

Structure and Movements

The St. Paul’s Suite consists of four movements, each inspired by different musical styles and folk tunes:

1. Jig: Vivace: The suite opens with a lively jig that immediately captures the listener’s attention. The movement is characterized by its rhythmic vitality and spirited interplay between the string sections. It evokes the energy and joy of traditional English dance music.

2. Ostinato: Presto: The second movement features a repetitive rhythmic pattern (ostinato) that underpins the entire movement. This movement is more introspective than the first, with a sense of underlying tension and momentum. The interplay of the ostinato with contrasting melodies showcases Holst’s contrapuntal skills.

3. Intermezzo: Andante con moto: This movement begins with a lyrical and expressive melody played by the solo violin, supported by a gently pulsing accompaniment. The music flows gracefully, with a pastoral quality that reflects Holst’s love of English countryside and folk traditions. The central section introduces a lively folk dance, creating a delightful contrast before returning to the serene opening theme.

4. Finale (The Dargason): Allegro: The finale is a brilliant fusion of two folk tunes: “The Dargason” and the well-known “Greensleeves.” The movement starts with the energetic and rhythmic “Dargason,” which is gradually interwoven with the hauntingly beautiful “Greensleeves.” This ingenious combination builds to a rousing and satisfying conclusion, demonstrating Holst’s ability to blend different musical elements seamlessly.

Musical Highlights

· First Movement (Jig: Vivace): Notable for its rhythmic drive and lively dance character, setting a joyful tone for the suite.

· Second Movement (Ostinato: Presto): Features a captivating and relentless ostinato pattern, with intricate contrapuntal textures.

· Third Movement (Intermezzo: Andante con moto): A lyrical and pastoral movement with a beautiful violin solo and a lively dance section.

· Fourth Movement (Finale: The Dargason: Allegro): A masterful combination of two folk tunes, creating a dynamic and engaging finale.

Legacy and Impact

The St. Paul’s Suite is celebrated for its charm, inventiveness, and effective use of folk melodies. It remains a favorite among string orchestras and is frequently performed in concert halls and educational settings. The suite’s blend of rhythmic vitality, lyrical beauty, and folk-inspired themes exemplifies Holst’s unique voice and his contribution to English music.

Holst’s work as a composer and educator is embodied in the St. Paul’s Suite, which continues to inspire musicians and audiences with its vibrant and evocative character. The suite stands as a testament to Holst’s ability to create music that is both artistically significant and deeply enjoyable.

Programme Notes for Johann Pachelbel’s Canon in D Major


Johann Pachelbel’s Canon in D Major is one of the most famous and frequently performed pieces of Baroque music. Composed around 1680, it has become a quintessential example of the canon form and is celebrated for its elegant simplicity and enduring beauty. Often performed at weddings and various ceremonial events, this piece has transcended its Baroque origins to become a timeless classic.

Historical Context

Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706) was a German composer and organist who significantly influenced the Baroque period. While he composed many works, his Canon in D Major is undoubtedly his most renowned. The exact circumstances of its composition are unclear, but it is believed to have been written for a wedding or other celebratory event. The piece was relatively obscure until the 20th century when it gained immense popularity through recordings and performances.

Structure and Form

The Canon in D Major is written for three violins and basso continuo. Its structure is based on the canon form, where a single melody is imitated and layered at regular intervals. The piece is also underpinned by a repeating ground bass, which provides a harmonic foundation and unifying element throughout the work.

1. Ground Bass: The basso continuo, typically played by a cello and harpsichord, consists of a two-bar ostinato (a repeating bass line) that forms the harmonic framework for the entire piece. This ostinato is repeated 28 times, providing a stable and continuous base over which the canon unfolds.

2. Canon: The three violin parts enter sequentially, each imitating the previous one at a distance of two bars. The imitation creates a rich, interwoven texture as the voices overlap and interact. The melody itself is simple and elegant, and the canon technique allows it to develop in complexity and beauty as the piece progresses.

3. Harmonic Progression: The harmonic progression of the Canon in D is straightforward, moving through a series of chords that create a sense of movement and resolution. This progression contributes to the piece’s soothing and harmonious character.

Musical Highlights

· Melodic Imitation: The canon form, with its exact melodic imitation, creates a beautifully woven tapestry of sound that gradually builds in complexity and richness.

· Ground Bass: The repetitive and steady ground bass provides a calming and hypnotic foundation, enhancing the piece’s overall sense of continuity and serenity.

· Dynamics and Phrasing: Although not explicitly marked in the score, performers often bring out the dynamic contrasts and phrasing to enhance the expressive quality of the music.

Legacy and Impact

The Canon in D Major has enjoyed a resurgence in popularity since the mid-20th century, becoming a staple in both classical and popular music contexts. Its use in films, commercials, and various modern arrangements has cemented its status as an iconic piece of music. The

canon’s simple yet profound beauty continues to resonate with audiences, making it a favored choice for weddings, celebrations, and reflective moments.

Pachelbel’s Canon in D Major stands as a testament to the enduring appeal of Baroque music and its ability to convey timeless emotions through elegant and sophisticated musical forms. Its universal appeal and adaptability ensure that it remains a beloved piece in the classical repertoire, cherished by musicians and listeners alike.

Programme Notes for Astor Piazzolla’s Libertango for String Orchestra


Astor Piazzolla’s Libertango, composed in 1974, is one of the most iconic pieces in the Nuevo Tango genre, blending traditional Argentine tango with elements of jazz and classical music. The piece, whose title combines “libertad” (Spanish for “freedom”) and “tango,” symbolizes Piazzolla’s break from classical tango to create a new, liberated form of the genre. When arranged for string orchestra, Libertango retains its rhythmic intensity and passionate character while showcasing the versatility and expressive power of the string ensemble.

Historical Context

Astor Piazzolla (1921-1992) was an Argentine composer and bandoneón player who revolutionized the traditional tango by incorporating elements of jazz, classical music, and modern harmonies. His innovative approach, often referred to as Nuevo Tango, initially faced resistance from tango purists but eventually gained widespread acclaim and transformed the genre. Libertango marks a pivotal point in Piazzolla’s career, representing his complete embrace of the Nuevo Tango style.

Structure and Form

Libertango is characterized by its driving rhythm, syncopated motifs, and rich harmonic language. The piece typically lasts around four to five minutes and features a continuous, energetic pulse that propels the music forward. When arranged for string orchestra, the various sections (violins, violas, cellos, and double basses) interact dynamically, enhancing the piece’s textural complexity and emotional depth.

1. Introduction: The piece opens with a powerful and rhythmic motif that establishes the energetic and assertive character of the tango. This motif is introduced by the lower strings, creating a strong foundation for the subsequent musical developments.

2. Main Theme: The main theme is characterized by its syncopated rhythm and distinctive melodic contour. It is typically introduced by the violins and is then passed through the different sections of the orchestra, allowing for a rich interplay of textures and timbres.

3. Development: The development section explores variations of the main theme, with intricate counterpoint and dynamic contrasts. The rhythmic drive remains constant,

but the melodic lines and harmonic progressions become more adventurous, showcasing Piazzolla’s innovative approach to tango.

4. Climax and Coda: The piece builds to a dramatic climax, with all sections of the orchestra contributing to a powerful and intense sound. The coda brings the piece to a thrilling conclusion, with a return to the rhythmic motif from the introduction, now intensified and expanded.

Musical Highlights

· Rhythmic Drive: The persistent and syncopated rhythms are a hallmark of Libertango, providing an unrelenting energy that drives the piece forward.

· Melodic Variations: The main theme undergoes numerous variations, each adding new dimensions and textures to the music.

· Dynamic Contrasts: The piece features striking dynamic contrasts, from intense, full-orchestra passages to more delicate and intimate moments.

· Expressive Phrasing: The string arrangement allows for highly expressive phrasing, with the players utilizing a wide range of bowing techniques and articulations to convey the passion and intensity of the tango.

Legacy and Impact

Libertango has become one of Piazzolla’s most famous and frequently performed works, transcending the boundaries of genre and appealing to a wide range of audiences. Its adaptability has led to numerous arrangements for various ensembles, including string orchestra, ensuring its enduring popularity.

The piece exemplifies Piazzolla’s genius in melding traditional Argentine tango with contemporary musical elements, creating a vibrant and compelling sound that continues to captivate listeners. As a representation of freedom and innovation within the tango tradition, Libertango remains a testament to Piazzolla’s legacy as a transformative figure in the world of music.

When performed by a string orchestra, Libertango not only showcases the technical and expressive capabilities of the ensemble but also highlights the timeless and universal appeal of Piazzolla’s revolutionary approach to tango.

Programme Notes for Shigeru Umebayashi’s In the Mood for Love


Shigeru Umebayashi’s In the Mood for Love is a poignant and evocative piece of music that serves as the main theme for Wong Kar-wai’s critically acclaimed film of the same name, released in 2000. The music plays a crucial role in shaping the film’s atmospheric and emotionally charged narrative, reflecting the themes of unspoken love, longing, and melancholy. Its haunting melody and lush orchestration make it an unforgettable piece that resonates deeply with audiences.

Historical Context

Shigeru Umebayashi, a Japanese composer known for his work in film music, composed In the Mood for Love specifically for Wong Kar-wai’s film. The movie, set in 1960s Hong Kong, tells the story of a man and a woman who develop a deep emotional bond after suspecting their spouses of infidelity. The film’s delicate exploration of forbidden love and repressed emotions is masterfully enhanced by Umebayashi’s music, which captures the essence of the characters’ internal struggles and the nostalgic ambiance of the era.

Musical Structure

In the Mood for Love is characterized by its simple yet profoundly expressive melody, rich harmonies, and elegant orchestration. The piece is typically performed by a string orchestra, with the main theme introduced by the violins and supported by lush harmonies in the lower strings.

1. Main Theme: The central melody of In the Mood for Love is introduced in the violins, featuring a slow, descending line that conveys a sense of yearning and sadness. The melody is beautifully crafted, with subtle shifts in harmony that enhance its emotional impact.

2. Harmonic Progression: The harmonic language of the piece is both rich and nuanced, providing a warm and enveloping backdrop for the main theme. The progression is carefully designed to evoke a sense of nostalgia and introspection, perfectly complementing the film’s narrative.

3. Orchestration: The orchestration is lush and refined, with the strings creating a seamless and cohesive sound. The interplay between the different sections of the orchestra adds depth and complexity to the music, while maintaining a delicate and intimate feel.

Musical Highlights

· Expressive Melody: The main theme is hauntingly beautiful and deeply expressive, capturing the essence of the film’s emotional core.

· Lush Harmonies: The rich harmonies provide a warm and enveloping atmosphere, enhancing the emotional depth of the music.

· Elegant Orchestration: The interplay between the string sections creates a seamless and cohesive sound, adding to the piece’s overall elegance and refinement.

· Emotional Resonance: The music’s ability to convey complex emotions such as longing, melancholy, and nostalgia makes it an integral part of the film’s storytelling.

Legacy and Impact

In the Mood for Love has become one of Shigeru Umebayashi’s most renowned compositions, largely due to its pivotal role in Wong Kar-wai’s film. The piece is often cited as a prime example of how music can enhance and elevate a cinematic experience, providing an emotional anchor for the narrative and deepening the audience’s connection to the characters and their stories.

The enduring popularity of the film has ensured that In the Mood for Love remains a beloved and frequently performed piece, both in concert settings and as part of film music

anthologies. Its timeless beauty and emotional power continue to resonate with listeners, making it a standout work in the realm of film music.

When performed by a string orchestra, In the Mood for Love offers a rich and immersive musical experience, allowing audiences to fully appreciate the depth and elegance of Umebayashi’s composition. It serves as a poignant reminder of the transformative power of music in film and its ability to touch the human soul.

  1. Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
  2. Holst St Paul's Suite
  3. Pachelbel Canon
  4. Elgar Serenade
  5. Piazzolla Libertango
International Students from Hong Kong
Students from the United Kingdom
English Chamber Orchestra Musicians
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